When we use Symfony's Console component to write CLI commands in PHP (and you should!), we're almost always writing any output to "stdout". This isn't necessarily good.
Your firewall is an important first line of defense on any publicly-accessible server. In previous articles I listed how to set up a firewall without getting into any detail. This article goes into depth with configuring your iptables firewall.
This will cover receiving GitHub's WebHooks using Node, and taking action on them with a shell script.
This will go over getting an Ubuntu 12.04 LTS server up and running for production use using Nginx instead of Apache. This does not pretend to be an exhaustive resource, particularly around security. This is Laravel friendly.
This will go over getting an Ubuntu 12.04 LTS server up and running for production use. Note: This does not pretend to be an exhaustive resource, particularly around security. Additionally, if your environment is more complex (Separate DB servers, servers across data-centers, different access levels, etc), then your setup can and will vary.
There are a few guides out there which help you install Laravel 4 in a way that let you pull in updates to the skeleton app in addition to the composer-based libraries. I think this is the best, quickest way.
I've been scouring the internet for good information on setting up user and group permissions for Apache. I'll link some resources on the bottom here, but here's what I found: